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Dynamic Amplification of Seismic Moments and Shear Forces in Cantilever Walls<br>M.J.N. Priestley, A.D. Amaris<br>Research Report Rose 2002/01 88-7358-006-8
An Introduction to Structural Testing Techniques in Earthquake Engineering<br>T. J. Sullivan, R. Pinho, A. Pavese<br>Research Report Rose 2004/01<br>FUORI CATALOGO 88-7358-019-X
LESSLOSS - A European Integrated Project on Risk Mitigation for Earthquakes and Landslides<br>Editors: G.M. Calvi, R. Pinho<br>Research Report Rose 2004/02<br>FUORI CATALOGO 88-7358-020-3
Modelling and Analysis of High-damping Rubber Bearings for the Seismic Protection of Bridges<br>D.N. Grant, G.L. Fenves, F. Auricchio<br>Research Report Rose 2005/01<br>FUORI CATALOGO 88-7358-023-8
Dynamic Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Frames Designed with Direct Displacement-Based Design<br>J.D. Pettinga, M.J.N. Priestley<br>Research Report Rose 2005/02<br>FUORI CATALOGO
In this study the established Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD) methodology is applied to six vertically regular tube-frames of 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 storeys to achieve a target design drift of 2%. Preliminary inelastic dynamic time-history analyse
Modelling Inelastic Response in Direct Displacement-Based Design<br>D.N. Grant, C.A. Blandon, M.J.N. Priestley<br>Research Report Rose 2005/03<br>FUORI CATALOGO
The direct displacement-based design (DBDD) method requires the definition of equivalent viscous damping to accurately predict the peak nonlinear response. Equivalent viscous damping is usually specified as the sum of a viscous and hysteretic component,
Displacement-Based Assessment of RC Columns with Limited Shear Resistance<br>P.A. Miranda, G.M. Calvi, R. Pinho, M.J.N. Priestley<br>Research Report Rose 2005/04
In seismic assessment of structures, the excess of conservativeness is undesirable because it leads to unrealistically low estimations of the level of seismicity that the assessed structure can sustain.
Defining Priorities and Timescales for Seismic Intervention in School Buildings in Italy<br>D. Grant, J.J. Bommer, R. Pinho, G.M. Calvi<br>Research Report Rose 2006/03<br>FUORI CATALOGO
This report presents the development of a risk-management framework for the seismic safety of school buildings in Italy.
Adaptive Pushover-based Methods for Seismic Assessment and Design of Bridge Structures<br>C. Casarotti, R. Pinho, G.M. Calvi<br>Research Report Rose 2005/06<br>FUORI CATALOGO
A major challenge in performance-based engineering is to develop simple, yet accurate, methods for estimating seismic demands on structures to predict their performance level with confidence.
Development of a Displacement-Based Method for Earthquake Loss Assessment<br>H. Crowley, R. Pinho, J.J. Bommer, J.F. Bird<br>Research Report Rose 2006/01<br>FUORI CATALOGO
This report presents a displacement-based earthquake loss assessment procedure (DBELA) for the estimation of direct losses due to structural and non-structural damage of reinforced concrete buildings caused by strong ground shaking or
Seismic Design of Frame-Wall Structures<br>T.J. Sullivan, M.J.N. Priestley, G.M. Calvi<br>Research Report Rose 2006/02<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Buildings that utilise frames and walls in parallel to resist seismic loads can perform excellently in earthquakes.
Residual Deformations in the Performance-Based Seismic Assessment of Frame Structures<br>S. Pampanin, C. Christopoulos, M.J.N. Priestley<br>Research Report Rose 2002/02 88-7358-036-X
Seismic Soil-Structures Interaction in Large-Diameter Shaft Foundations <br> C. Beltrami, C.G. Lai, A. Pecker<br>Research Report Rose 2006/04<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Aim of this work is to illustrate an analytical model for the assessment of kinematic interaction of large-diameter shaft foundations.
Developments in the Prediction and Mitigation of Residual Deformations due to Seismic Demand, including Asymmetric Structural Response<br>J.D. Pettinga, S. Pampanin, C. Christopoulos, M.J.N. Priestley<br>Research Report Rose 2007/01<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Recent developments in performance-based seismic design and assessment approaches have emphasised the importance of properly assessing and limiting the residual (permanent) deformations typically sustained by a structure after a seismic event, even when designed according to current code provisions.
Accounting for P-Delta Effects in Structures when using Direct Displacement-Based Design<br>J.D. Pettinga, M.J.N. Priestley<br>Research Report Rose 2007/02<br>FUORI CATALOGO
In this report, an outline of how P- effects influence single-degree-of-freedom response is presented, from which the explicit inclusion of this second-order effect in the Direct Displacement-Based Design method is developed.
Structural Characteristics of Turkish RC Building Stock in Northern Marmara Region for Loss Assessment Applications<br>I.E. Bal, H. Crowley, R. Pinho, F.G. Gulay<br>Research Report Rose 2007/03<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Istanbul is one of the most obviously hazardous regions in the world and is expecting an earthquake along the fault which is just tens of kilometres away. Assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the building stock in this region, Northern Marmara of Turkey, is of growing importance since such information is needed for reliable estimation of the losses that possible future earthquakes are likely to induce.
Displacement-Based Seismic Design of Isolated Bridges<br>D. Pietra, G.M. Calvi, R. Pinho<br>Research Report Rose 2008/01<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Earthquakes represent an extremely challenging loading condition that structures and the engineers firstly, have to face with. In fact, strength will not suffice for providing safety, as static loads will imply.
Probabilistic Seismic Assessment for Hospitals and Complex-Social Systems<br>G. Lupoi, P. Franchin, A. Lupoi, P.E. Pinto, G.M. Calvi<br>Research Report Rose 2008/02<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Hospital systems represent one of the basic societal services whose functioning must be guaranteed following a disaster. By the nature of the problem, the evaluation of the response to earthquakes of health-care systems is multidisciplinary and requires the participation of different professionalisms, contributing knowledge from earthquake engineering as well as disaster medicine.
Seismic design of torsionally eccentric buildings with U-shaped RC walls<br>K. Beyer, A. Dazio, M.J.N. Priestley<br>Research Report Rose 2008/03<br>FUORI CATALOGO
The objective of the present work is that of making a contribution to the performance-based seismic design of RC buildings with U-shaped walls. Since U-shaped walls are often placed at the perimeter of a building and are typically stiffer and stronger than other lateral strength providing structural elements, many of these buildings possess in-plan strength and stiffness eccentricities and are therefore prone to damage due to twist-induced displacements.
Out-of Plane Seismic Response of Unreinforced Masonry - Definition of Seismic Input<br>A. Menon, G. Magenes<br>Research Report Rose 2008/04
Response of unreinforced masonry (URM) walls to out-of-plane seismic excitation is a complex yet inadequately addressed theme in seismic analysis. Present-day seismic design codes provide dimensioning and detailing rules that impede out-of-plane failure even under severe earthquake load. However, lack of structural detailing (e.g. effective ties, adequately rigid diaphragms, etc.) renders existing URM buildings, typically not designed in accordance with any code, highly susceptible to out-of-plane failure even under low intensities of ground motion.
Influence of Clamping Stresses on the Shear Strength of Concrete Slabs under Uniform Loads<br>A.B. Acevedo, E.C. Bentz, M.P. Collins<br>Research Report Rose 2008/05<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Analytical and experimental research were conducted to investigate the influence of clamping stresses on the shear strength of concrete slabs under uniform loads. Including clamping stresses in the Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) procedures was shown to considerably increase the shear prediction accuracy for members under uniformly distributed loads. In addition, contrary to current sectional methods that give accurate results only in those regions where plane sections remain plane, results suggest that the MCFT with clamping stresses can provide reasonably accurate results in any region of a slab.
A Method for Seismic Response Assessment of RC Frames Using Simplified Linear Approach Based on Response Factors<br>S. Peloso, A. Pavese<br>Research Report Rose 2008/06<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Several non-linear static procedures (NSP) have been developed in the past years as the results of the complexity inherent in the non-linear time-history analysis making it impractical for the everyday engineering practice. The objective of these simplified procedures is to try to assess the behaviour of structures directly accounting for their performances in the inelastic range. Nevertheless, the most common NSP evaluate the structural capacity through pushover analysis: a method still under development and not free from limitations. Focusing on bi-dimensional frames, the objective of the research work presented herein was to try to develop an assessment procedure, named Secant Modes Superposition (SMS) method, trying to extend to the non-linear case the well-known modal response spectrum analysis.
A Fibre Flexure-Shear Model for Cyclic Nonlinear Behaviour of RC Structural Elements<br>P. Ceresa, L. Petrini, R. Pinho<br>Research Report Rose 2008/07<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Several fibre beam-column elements were developed in the last 20 years with high capability of reproducing axial force and flexure effects. On the other hand, the coupling between the effects of normal and shear forces is not straightforward due to the complexity of the different phenomena leading to shear failure. Recent studies attempted to introduce into the fibre approach the Timoshenko beam theory or even the exact beam theory coupled with a multi-axial constitutive law for material. Each one of the existing modelling strategy represents an important step towards the development of a fibre beam-column element with shear; however, shortcomings remain. These considerations encouraged this research work on the development a flexure-shear model for seismic analysis of RC framed structures.
Derivation of Empirical Fragility Curves from Italian Damage Data<br>M. Rota, A. Penna, C. Strobbia, G. Magenes<br>Research Report Rose 2008/08<br>FUORI CATALOGO
In case of an earthquake, the number of victims and the amount of economic losses depend significantly on the seismic behaviour of structures. Research on seismic vulnerability is hence needed, particularly for masonry buildings, which constitute the majority of urban and rural housing in Italy and in many other countries, and for which specific vulnerability studies are required. A common representation of vulnerability consists of fragility curves providing, for each level of ground motion, the probability of reaching or exceeding specified levels of damage. This study deals with the derivation of empirical fragility curves from observed post-earthquake damage data collected after the main Italian events of the last 30 years. Fragility curves are derived for selected building typologies, according to a damage scale based on the European Macroseismic Scale EMS-98, which includes 5 levels of damage, plus the case of no damage. Ground motion is described in terms of PGA and Housner intensity. The experimental damage probability matrices were processed to infer the parameters of lognormal distributions, using an advanced nonlinear regression procedure and taking into account the relative reliability of each experimental point, using the bootstrap technique.
Mitigation of Higher Mode Effects in Base-Rocking Systems by using Multiple Rocking Sections<br>L. Wiebe, C. Christopoulos<br>Research Report Rose 2009/01<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Base-rocking walls have been suggested as an improvement over base-yielding walls for seismic applications because structural forces in a rocking system are limited but structural damage is practically eliminated. In both systems, however, forces can increase after the specified base moment is achieved because of higher mode effects. This report demonstrates that these effects may be reduced by providing multiple rocking sections over the height of a rocking wall. The program MURO is developed to perform the nonlinear time-history analysis of wall systems modelled using simplified input parameters. MURO is then used to conduct an initial parametric study, which suggests that rocking sections above the base limit the peak bend¬ing moments in rocking walls without increasing the peak displacements. This study also shows reduced moments and shears for a base-yielding system with a secondary hinge.
Interpretation of experimental shear tests on clay brick masonry walls and evaluation of q-factors for seismic design<br>S. Frumento, G. Magenes, P. Morandi, G.M. Calvi<br>FUORI CATALOGO
The present research report deals with the evaluation of the behaviour factor q to be used in linear elastic analyses for seismic design of unreinforced clay unit masonry buildings starting from the interpretation of the results of recent shear tests on masonry walls carried out in different laboratories throughout Europe.
A Model Code for the Displacement-Based Seismic Design of Structures<br>Editors: G.M. Calvi & T.J. Sullivan<br>2009
This publication has been developed to provide guidance as to how the direct displacement-based design methodology can be codified. It is intended for insertion within the seismic requirements of a code, establishing how design forces can be obtained using a Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD) approach. The document has currently been drafted with reference to several clauses of Eurocode 8. This document is presented in a traditional “Code + Commentary” format, on a split two-column page. The commentary aims to generally clarify the code requirements and indicate references where the background and further discussion on the requirements can be found.
Static Tests on Dry Stone Masonry and Evaluation of Static Collapse Multipliers<br>L.F. Restrepo Vélez, G. Magenes<br>Research Report Rose 2009/02<br>FUORI CATALOGO

The response of masonry walls subjected to out-of-plane seismic actions is one of the most challenging topics in masonry mechanics. Experimental testing in support of  theoretical models is quite limited, and even when approaching the problem from a simpler static point of view (lateral resistance of  walls subjected to mass-proportional out-of-plane static forces) the need for clear experimental references is strongly felt. In the case of dry stone masonry, reduced scale static testing can be carried out with quite simple and economical methods.
This research report  presents the design, the execution, the results and the analyses of a series of static tests performed on several configurations of 1:5 scaled wall specimens made of regular dry stone masonry, focusing on their lateral strength capacity.
The tests have been performed at the University of Pavia, with the main objective of verifying existing analytical expression for the computation of the static collapse multiplier of the out-of-plane failure mechanisms.
A testing method already applied by other researchers has been followed. The testing device for the static tests was a tilting platform. No mortar was used in the models, which means that the shear strength along the joints was given purely by friction. The collapse multiplier was calculated from the inclination angle of the platform. 
In total, 42 configurations have been tested, varying the length of the walls, the presence and position of openings, the staggering ratio, the quality of the connection between walls, the existence of vertical overburden loads in the out-of-plane and in the in-plane walls, and the number of stories.

On the Development of Seismic Design Forces for Flexible Floor Diaphragms in Reinforced Concrete Wall Buildings<br>J.A. Rivera, R. Pinho<br>Research Report Rose 2009/03

In the analysis and design of buildings, concrete floors are generally considered to be infinitely rigid in their plane. This idealisation affords the simplification of computer models used for analysis, as well as the overall seismic design of the vertical lateral force resisting elements. However, the poor performance of a multitude of buildings in recent earthquakes revealed that the rigid diaphragm assumption may not be appropriate for the design of certain floor geometries and floor systems. In fact, the damage and collapse of several buildings was largely attributed to deficient diaphragm designs. Precast concrete floor systems were observed to be quite flexible; and measured floor accelerations were several times larger than those prescribed by building codes for the design of diaphragms. These findings led to the development of improved floor acceleration estimation methods by researchers. However, these methods are only applicable to either elastically responding structures, or those modelled with rigid diaphragms. Noting that all diaphragms are flexible to some degree, and that this flexibility can lead to “unconventional” force and displacement patterns in a building during seismic excitation, there still exists a need to thoroughly characterise the seismic response of buildings with very flexible diaphragms for their proper design. A comprehensive study on the seismic response of flexible diaphragm RC wall buildings was undertaken. An extensive number of non-linear dynamic response simulations were performed on buildings of various heights that incorporated diaphragms with differing degrees of in-plane flexibility. The intensity level of the seismic input was incrementally increased, resulting in clear trends between the wall displacement ductility demands and the recorded diaphragm inertia forces.

Fundamentals of Solid Mechanics <br>K. Wilmanski<br>Lecture Notes ROSE - 2010/01<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Elasticity, viscoelasticity, plasticity, dislocations are all phenomena which determine the behaviour of systems in geophysics and geotechnics. Soil and rock mechanics, foundations of engineering structures, analysis and design of buildings under seismic loading, they all use notions and basic solutions of the corresponding branches of solid mechanics which describe theoretically these phenomena.
Development and application of Nonlinear Static Procedures for plan-asymmetric buildings<br>G. Adhikari, R. Pinho<br>Research Report Rose 2010/01<br>FUORI CATALOGO

Plan-asymmetric buildings has shown considerable vulnerability in the past earthquakes, due to presence of floor rotation in addition to floor translations. Moreover, torsional behaviour changes usually while transitioning from elastic to inelastic regime depending on the elastic properties of the system, on the in-plan distribution of lateral load resisting elements' strength and on the level of the seismic intensity. Therefore, conventional elastic analysis based evaluation and/or design procedures are unable to predict such behaviour of plan-asymmetric buildings. Among nonlinear analysis procedures, inherent intricacy limits the application of nonlinear dynamic analysis, despite of its attractive accuracy, in widespread professional application. Nonlinear Static Procedures (NSPs), on the other hand, provide an optimal trade off between simplicity and accuracy, if performed carefully, and thus gaining popularity in the professional field in recent times.

Displacement-Based Earthquake Loss Assessment: Method Development and Application to Turkish Building Stock<br>I.E. Bal, H. Crowley, R. Pinho<br>Research Report Rose 2010/02<br>FUORI CATALOGO

In this report, the originally proposed Displacement-Based Earthquake Loss Assessment (DBELA) methodology has been further verified and calibrated by carrying out a number of structural analyses on case study buildings and frames from the existing European building stock, and in particular from Turkish buildings. The behaviour of real structures has been investigated in detail. The following additional developments have been covered in this report: • Failure mechanisms and displacement capacities of the most characteristic buildings which consist of more than 90% of the overall stock have been defined. • The effect of infill panels on the overall response of investigated buildings has been examined. • Dual (frame-wall) buildings and reinforced concrete structures with embedded beams have also been included in the methodology. • The method has also been extended to include different types of Turkish masonry structures constructed with concrete and timber slabs. • Several uncertainties have been examined qualitatively. Major uncertainties have been quantified and included in the demand and capacity formulations of the method.

A Review of Glass Façade Systems and Research into the Seismic Design of Frameless Glass Façades <br>A. Lago, T.J. Sullivan<br>Research Report Rose 2011/01<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Recent earthquakes have shown that limiting the losses associated with damage to non-structural elements is becoming increasingly important. To this extent, glazing is one of the most frequently used façade materials in newly constructed buildings. However, few studies appear to have been conducted into the seismic response of glass façade systems and consequently national building codes provide only limited guidelines for their seismic design and analysis.
Performance-Based Seismic Design of Tall RC Wall Buildings<br>D. Pennucci, T.J. Sullivan, G.M. Calvi<br>Research Report Rose 2011/02<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Recent years have seen great expansion of the tall building industry, even in areas characterized by high seismicity. The structural systems that are usually adopted in tall buildings and the seismic response that they exhibit can differ substantially from those characterizing low-rise construction. Seismic codes, though, are typically envisaged for the design of traditional structural systems, and are not able to take into account some peculiar characteristics of tall buildings. Recognizing such issues, and to overcome the inappropriate prescriptions that traditional seismic codes impose on the design of modern tall buildings, alternative design procedures have become more acceptable in recent years. These innovative approaches to tall building design are referred to as performance-based design methods.
Report on the Maule (Chile) February 27th, 2010 earthquake<br>L.D. Decanini, D. Liberatore, L. Liberatore, G. Magenes, A. Penna, L. Sorrentino<br>FUORI CATALOGO
The survey of the building seismic response and the study of the ground motion represent a unique laboratory to understand seismic phenomena and the importance of such issues grows with the size of the event. Therefore, Sapienza, University of Rome and the Eucentre (both of Italy) organized a reconnaissance mission to the areas of Chile most affected by the February 27, 2010, earthquake. The 2010 Maule earthquake (Mw = 8.8) is one of the largest earthquake occurred since 1900 in the world. The population directly affected in most struck area was in the order of 2 million and about 520 casualties were recorded. The homeless were approximately 800 000. The most affected area was about 54 000 km2. Preliminary tangible loss estimation was of about € 25-30 billion. Severe damage and victims were mainly due to adobe house collapses and to the tsunami that affected a significant portion of central Chile.
A Model Code for the Displacement-Based Seismic Design of Structures DBD12<br>Editors: T.J. Sullivan, M.J.N. Priestley, G.M. Calvi 2012<br>FUORI CATALOGO
This publication has been developed to provide guidance as to how the direct displacement-based design methodology can be codified. It is intended for insertion within the seismic requirements of a code, establishing how design forces can be obtained using a Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD) approach. The document has currently been prepared with reference to several clauses of Eurocode 8. This document is presented in a traditional “Code + Commentary” format, on a split two-column page. The commentary aims to generally clarify the code requirements and indicate references where the background and further discussion on the requirements can be found. The document is a revised version of the draft model code DBD09. The bulk of the text and requirements in this code have been developed from the recommendations provided in the book on DDBD by Priestley et al. (2007) and from research carried out following that publication, including developments made by Linea IV of the RELUIS project ( Currently the model code has been prepared for a wide range of building structures and bridges. However, the model code does not yet cover all structural systems and materials. In addition, a number of novel recommendations have been proposed that are preliminary in nature because of the limited amount of experimental or analytical data on which they are based. Future versions of this document will therefore look to refine the current recommendations and extend the guidelines to encompass a more complete range of structural systems.
Performance-Based Seismic Design and Fragility Evaluation of Blockwork Wharf Structures<br>A. Calabrese, C.G. Lai<br>Research Report Rose 2012/01<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Worldwide, a large number of important ports are located in active seismic regions. In the last fifty years, several dramatic examples of earthquakes’ destructiveness have been recorded, from the 1964 Alaska earthquake to the very recent Tohoku March 11, 2011 earthquake. With specific reference to port infrastructures, the damage caused by seismic events often affects the economy of the region for a long time. Some circumstances have also proven that ports can be a key element for the aid operations in the immediate aftermath following a seismic event. For instance, in the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the loss of serviceability of most berthing facilities greatly complicated the relief efforts. The above considerations indicate that the severe consequences of earthquake-induced failures to maritime port structures require a thorough understanding of their seismic response. Existing old wharves deserve special consideration because the design tools used in the past were simpler than the ones currently in use, e.g. force-based pseudo-static approaches versus displacement-based procedures. Moreover, they were probably designed for a less severe seismic action, if any, either because the site was not classified as earthquake-susceptible or because seismic hazard studies performed at the time of design are now outdated. Furthermore, since they are located in well-established maritime ports, their loss of serviceability could be detrimental for systems with consolidated trading patterns. Blockwork wharves are the most common quay typology for existing port structures in the Mediterranean region. In this report, a comprehensive methodology for the seismic design and the probabilistic assessment of such configurations is proposed. The work is based on advanced numerical modelling combined with the use of Artificial Neural Networks, and liquefaction occurrence is explicitly taken into account. By applying the proposed procedure, design charts and fragility curves are derived for several combinations of geotechnical and structural properties.
Performance-Based Seismic Analysis and Design of Earthfill Dams<br>H. Sanchez Lizagarra, C.G. Lai<br>Research Report Rose 2012/02<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Throughout the history of mankind, people have built dams to store and divert water, and also nowadays earth dams are the most common typology used worldwide to create reservoirs. Earthquakes are the third cause of embankment dam disasters, therefore it is necessary to have a complete understanding of the seismic response of these safety-critical structures. In current practice, earth dams are often assessed using simplified models. However, the main problem with the traditional analysis of earth constructions is that soil properties are always represented using deterministic values. This is an assumption that never happens in reality, wherein the uncertainty in soil properties is inevitable. Moreover, the soil domain is frequently considered as homogeneous; thus its inherent spatial variability is generally neglected. Consequently, both concepts of spatial variability and uncertainty in the soil characteristics are seldom addressed together when studying the seismic behaviour of earth dams. In this report, using an existing dam as prototype model, a performance assessment methodology is presented, in which both uncertainty and spatial variability of soil parameters are accounted for. A comprehensive probabilistic analysis is performed, combining advanced numerical modelling with random field theory and Monte Carlo simulation. As outcomes, seismic demand hazard curves for homogeneous and spatially varying soil properties are constructed, together with fragility curves for several damage states.
Developing Direct Displacement-based Design and Assessment Procedures for Performance-based Earthquake Engineering <br>D.P. Welch, T.J. Sullivan, G.M. Calvi<br>Research Report Rose 2012/03
The concept of performance-based earthquake engineering has received increasing attention over the past few decades in an ongoing effort to better control the expected seismic behaviour of structures. As a direct result of collaborative efforts across the field of earthquake engineering, the capability of existing methods to incorporate monetary losses and seismic risk into the assessment has been realized with current applications pertaining to the assessment of large populations of buildings providing assistance to decision makers on a city-wide or regional scale.
Bayesian Network Framework for Macro-Scale Seismic Risk Assessment and Decision Support for Bridges<br>S. Broglio, H. Crowley, R. Pinho<br>Research Report UME 2013/01<br>FUORI CATALOGO
In the immediate aftermath of an earthquake, it is useful to know the general condition of an entire area to better organize the emergency phase. However, it is not possible to assess in detail every single structure. For this reason, macro-scale analyses are very important to receive preliminary information about the most likely condition of the structures in a given area.
Damage Control of Masonry Infills in Seismic Design - Report EUCENTRE 2013/01<br>S. Hak, P. Morandi, G. Magenes
The present research report deals with the limitation of earthquake-induced damage to non-structural masonry infills in the design of RC structures, focusing on a specific group of infills widely adopted in European (and specifically Italian) construction practise. In particular, traditional clay masonry infill typologies with masonry panels constructed in complete contact with the surrounding RC frame are investigated. The principal objectives of the work are related to improvements in the understanding of the seismic response of newly designed masonry infilled RC structures in function of relevant design parameters and types of infill as well as to the development of recommendations for a more refined verification procedure aimed to provide enhanced damage control. These goals are achieved through an extensive analytical parametric study on newly designed RC structural configurations with different masonry infill typologies. Numerical models calibrated with reference to test results from previous experimental studies are adopted to evaluate the structural response based on nonlinear dynamic analyses. The influence of several design parameters is investigated, including building height, ground motion intensity, ductility class, and masonry typology.
Characterising the Seismic Behaviour of Steel MRF Structures - Report EUCENTRE 2013/02<br>T.J. Maley, T.J. Sullivan, A. Lago, R. Roldan, G.M. Calvi<br>FUORI CATALOGO
Recent earthquake events have highlighted the need for seismic design approaches that not only ensure life-safety during rare earthquake events but also effectively control the likely damage, or performance, of structures as a function of acceptable levels of seismic risk. These concepts are at the heart of new performance-based design requirements that are emerging internationally in seismic design and need to be employed by the European steel construction industry. With this in mind, the European Research Fund for Coal and Steel has provided financial support for the DiSTEEL project, which is aiming to deliver a set of practical performance-based design guidelines for steel MRF structures. The objective of this report is to examine the dynamic non-linear response of steel MRF structures subject to earthquake excitations and to subsequently identify simplified means of characterising the frames, for the purposes of displacement-based seismic design (DBD).
Developments in the Field of Displacement-Based Seismic Assessment <br> Editors: T.J. Sullivan, G.M. Calvi<br>Research Report Rose 2013/01
Traditional seismic assessment methods have tended to be force-based, relying on a simple comparison of estimated base shear capacity and base shear demand specified by a code. However, the demand parameter that best correlates to the damage in a structure tends to be the deformation demand, which, for the purposes of a simplified assessment procedure can be related to a system displacement demand. This observation has provided motivation for the development of displacement-based seismic assessment (DBA) and design (DBD) procedures. The Direct DBD method has been well developed, principally by Priestley and his co-workers. However, the DBA approach first proposed by Priestley in 1997 has not undergone significant developments and given the potential it offers, development of the DBA approach has been a focus within a recent Italian National Research project known as the RELUIS project.
Characterising the Seismic Behaviour of Steel Beam-Column Joints for Seismic Design - Report EUCENTRE 2014/01<br>T.J. Sullivan, G.J. O'Reilly
The seismic behaviour of beam-column joints can strongly affect the performance of steel frame buildings, as was witnessed from the 1994 Northridge earthquake in the United States. In Europe, a range of beam-column joint typologies are permitted but seismic design guidelines that account for different joint typologies in steel frames are relatively limited. Considering the above remarks, the European Research Fund for Coal and Steel has provided financial support for the DiSTEEL project, which aims to deliver a set of practical performance-based design guidelines for steel MRF structures. The objective of this report is to characterise the seismic behaviour of beam-column joints employed in MRF structures and provide simplified design tools to permit the seismic design of the various connection types. This report first collects a total of 76 sets of experimental data on both fully welded and extended end-plate connections available in the literature for the calibration of numerical models. Using these, a series of parametric studies are conducted, which results in a series of simplified design tools being proposed. Among these are simplified expressions to determine connection yield drift, plastic resistance and plastic rotation capacities of partial strength and flexible connections. In addition, a set of displacement-reduction factors have been proposed that will prove useful for displacement-based design of MRFs.
Guidelines for the Performance-Based Seismic Design of Steel MRF Structures - Report EUCENTRE 2014/02<br>R. Roldan, D.P Welch, C.I. Nievas, T.J. Sullivan, A.A. Correia, G.M. Calvi<br>FUORI CATALOGO
In 2010, the European Research Fund for Coal and Steel has provided financial support for the DiSTEEL project, which focuses on the displacement-based seismic design of steel moment resisting frames. As one of the final products of this 3-year effort, the objective of this report is to provide a set of comprehensive guidelines for the performance-based seismic design of steel MRF buildings. This report first discusses the current state-of-the-art of performance-based earthquake engineering and identifies a range of potentially critical structural and non-structural performance criteria together with other important inputs for the performance-based design of steel frames. The main body of the report provides a detailed description of the displacement-based design methodology for regular steel MRFs with guidance for buildings possessing either full or partial-strength and either rigid or semi-rigid connections. Guidelines are also provided to illustrate how the DBD approach can be extended to MRF systems with setbacks over their height and for dual RC wall-steel MRF systems. The design procedure is illustrated through step-by-step examples for different case study buildings considering different joint typologies.